stuart monarchs timeline

| December 10, 2020

[note 3] In total, nine Stewart/Stuart monarchs ruled Scotland alone from 1371 until 1603, the last of which was James VI, before his accession in England. Save for Later. Henry II named his son, another Henry (1155–1183), as co-ruler with him but this was a Norman custom of designating an heir, and the younger Henry did not outlive his father and rule in his own right, so he is not counted as a monarch on lists of kings. 1603 - 1649 and 1660 - 1714 The Stuarts. 1154 - 1216 The Angevins (The first Plantagenet kings) 1216 - 1399 Plantagenets. Æthelred was forced to go into exile in mid-1013, following Danish attacks, but was invited back following Sweyn Forkbeard's death in 1014. [3][4] The title "King of the English" or Rex Anglorum in Latin, was first used to describe Æthelstan in one of his charters in 928. From the time of King John onwards all other titles were eschewed in favour of Rex or Regina Anglie. Two of the most controversial figures of their time were promoted to senior roles in Church and state: William Laud was made Archbishop of Canterbury, and Thomas Wentworth, Earl of Strafford, was appointed Lord-Deputy of Ireland. Oliver Cromwell: 1649-1658. The Empress Matilda styled herself Domina Anglorum ("Lady of the English"). While James and his descendants would continue to claim the throne, all Catholics (such as James and his son Charles) were barred from the throne by the Act of Settlement 1701, enacted by Anne, another of James's Protestant daughters. It ended in 1714, when the British crown passed to the house of Hanover. William was crowned King William I of England on Christmas Day 1066, in Westminster Abbey, and is today known as William the Conqueror, William the Bastard or William I. Henry I left no legitimate male heirs, his son William Adelin having died in the White Ship disaster. King of Scots. Hence the choice of bride for. Age 30-55; Born: 29 May 1630 at St. James Palace Following the death of Harold Godwinson at Hastings, the Anglo-Saxon Witenagemot elected as king Edgar Ætheling, the son of Edward the Exile and grandson of Edmund Ironside. George I – 1st August 1714 – 28th May 1727. [109] In 1555, Pope Paul IV issued a papal bull recognising Philip and Mary as rightful King and Queen of Ireland. The invitation spurred on William’s invasion plans, which he had already started. The Stuart claim to England's throne derived from Margaret Tudor, eldest daughter of Henry VII, who married James IV. In November 1647 Charles escaped his captors, fleeing to the royalist forces on the Isle of Wight. The House of Plantagenet takes its name from Geoffrey Plantagenet, Count of Anjou, husband of the Empress Matilda and father of Henry II. James I speech to the House of Commons reflected that he was not humble and had a mindset in favor for the Divine Right of Kings, He was arrogant. Although the Whigs considered the Treaty a capitulation to France, Britain gained hugely from the peace settlement, including new territories in the Americas and in Europe, including Gibralter, and a monopoly over the lucrative Asiento slave trade. The timeline below will take you through the Stuart Monarchs who reigned between 1485-1603. The Exclusion Crisis was a political episode that ran from 1679 through 1681. The Angevins formulated England's royal coat of arms, which usually showed other kingdoms held or claimed by them or their successors, although without representation of Ireland for quite some time. A useful timeline displaying key events during the Stuart Monarchs. Harald and William both invaded separately in 1066. Since 1614 negotiations for the marriage of Prince Charles to the Spanish infanta Maria Anna had been taking place. He dissolved the Rump Parliament at the head of a military force and England entered a period known as The Protectorate, under Cromwell's direct control with the title Lord Protector. NEXT. By continuing to use this website you consent to the use of cookies and your personal data as set out in our. The Houses of Lancaster and York are cadet branches of the House of Plantagenet. His son Edward the Elder conquered the eastern Danelaw, but Edward's son Æthelstan became the first king to rule the whole of England when he conquered Northumbria in 927, and he is regarded by some modern historians as the first true king of England. Having suffered a stroke, Charles converted to Catholicism on his death-bed and passed away a few hours later. The Nine Years’ War concluded with the Treaty of Ryswick, in which the French returned most of their newly gained territories to the Allied states. Below is a simple timeline of events in Stuart Britain, from the accession of James VI to the throne of England as James I, to the death of Queen Anne. Edward III was crowned on 1 February 1327. Mary II and William III were crowned on 11 April 1689. Following the death of Elizabeth I in 1603 without issue, her first cousin twice removed, King James VI of Scotland, succeeded to the English throne as James I in the Union of the Crowns. The Act of Uniformity was one of the most important pieces of legislation of the later Stuart era. The period which followed is known as The Anarchy, as parties supporting each side fought in open warfare both in Britain and on the continent for the better part of two decades. House of Stuart, royal house of Scotland from 1371 and of England from 1603, when James VI inherited the English throne as James I. A group of Catholic terrorists schemed to blow up parliament with the king and his family inside, thus removing the Stuart dynasty from the British throne. The Tudors descended in the female line from John Beaufort, one of the illegitimate children of John of Gaunt (third surviving son of Edward III), by Gaunt's long-term mistress Katherine Swynford. The letter was couriered to William in The Hague by Rear Admiral Arthur Herbert disguised as a sailor, and identified by a secret code. Parliament was now rigged in the army’s favour. The Stuarts line Restored (The Restoration) Charles II 1660 - 1685. For example, Offa of Mercia and Egbert of Wessex are sometimes described as kings of England by popular writers, but it is no longer the majority view of historians that their wide dominions are part of a process leading to a unified England. Following the decisive Battle of Assandun on 18 October 1016, King Edmund signed a treaty with Cnut (Canute) under which all of England except for Wessex would be controlled by Cnut. After the Acts of Union 1707, England as a sovereign state ceased to exist, replaced by the new Kingdom of Great Britain. ... Timeline of British Monarchs. Monck took control of the country in December 1659, and after almost a year of anarchy, the monarchy was formally restored when Charles II returned from France to accept the throne of England. Many queens also came to wield influence over the political, religious and cultural lives of their adopted nations. With Henry VIII's break from the Roman Catholic Church, the monarch became the Supreme Head of the Church of England and of the Church of Ireland. EGBERT 827 – 839Egbert (Ecgherht) was the first monarch to establish a stable and extensive rule over all of Anglo-Saxon England. In the summer of 1678 a clergyman called Titus Oates claimed to have learnt that a new Catholic plot was underway, where thousands of Catholics were going to invade Britain; they were going to slaughter Protestants up and down the country; and they were going to forcibly reinstate the Catholic Church in Britain. At Monck’s recommendation, Charles issued the Declaration of Breda. One of the most interesting responses to this moment was Shakespeare’s. On 5 December parliament voted to continue negotiations with Charles I, much to the army’s dismay. Charles I was crowned on 2 February 1626. 1603 Scottish King James VI, son of Mary, Queen of Scots, becomes James I of England and the first King of Great Britain. This category only includes cookies that ensures basic functionalities and security features of the website. His reign united both countries, and the United Kingdom has been ruled by a single monarch ever since. COMMONWEALTH. Richard I was crowned on 3 September 1189. [xvii], This article is about English monarchs until 1707. Monarch: Reign. This timeline details all Kings and Queens of England and Britain from 827 to present day. Louis VIII of France briefly won two-thirds of England over to his side from May 1216 to September 1217 at the conclusion of the First Barons' War against King John. It established the forms of public prayers, administration of the sacrament, and other liturgical practises of the established Church of England. Since that time, except for King Edward III, the eldest sons of all English monarchs have borne this title. Before naming Matilda as heir, he had been in negotiations to name his nephew Stephen of Blois as his heir. Historian Simon Keynes states, for example, that "Offa was driven by a lust for power, not a vision of English unity; and what he left was a reputation, not a legacy. It was not until the late 9th century that one kingdom, Wessex, had become the dominant Anglo-Saxon kingdom. Edward VI named Lady Jane Grey as his heir in his will, overruling the order of succession laid down by Parliament in the Third Succession Act. Stuart Monarchs of Britain Timeline Posters (SB5775) A set of printable posters featuring British monarchs from the House of Stuart and the dates of their reign. If you don't, there's a timeline on the Project … After the act of Union in 1707 the king or queen is more correctly called the monarch of Great Britain. All official documents, including Acts of Parliament, were to be dated with both their names, and Parliament was to be called under the joint authority of the couple. Michael K. Jones and Malcolm G. Underwood, Abbey of Santa María la Real de Las Huelgas, Supreme Governor of the Church of England, Act for the Marriage of Queen Mary to Philip of Spain, Alternative successions of the English crown, Family tree of English and British monarchs, List of monarchs of the British Isles by cause of death, List of rulers of the United Kingdom and predecessor states, "Family of Edgar +* and Aelfthryth +* of DEVON", "Ethelred II 'The Unready' (r. 978–1013 and 1014–1016)", "Edmund II 'Ironside' (r. Apr – Nov 1016)", "Edward III 'The Confessor' (r. 1042–1066)", "William I 'The Conqueror' (r. 1066–1087)", "William II (Known as William Rufus) (r. 1087–1100)", "Richard I Coeur de Lion ('The Lionheart') (r.1189–1199)", "England: Louis of France's Claim to the Throne of England: 1216–1217", "Act for the Marriage of Queen Mary to Philip of Spain (1554)", "History of St Giles' without Cripplegate", "Richard Cromwell, Lord Protector, 1626–1712", "William III (r. 1689–1702) and Mary II (r. 1689–1694)", "Archontology – English Kings/Queens from 871 to 1707", "British Royal Family History – Kings and Queens", "English Monarchs – A complete history of the Kings and Queens of England", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=List_of_English_monarchs&oldid=992676000, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the ODNB, Short description is different from Wikidata, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 6 December 2020, at 14:45. Among them were Harold Godwinson (recognised as king by the Witenagemot after the death of Edward the Confessor), Harald Hardrada (King of Norway who claimed to be the rightful heir of Harthacnut) and Duke William II of Normandy (vassal to the King of France, and first cousin once-removed of Edward the Confessor). It was within the power of the Lord Protector to choose his heir and Oliver Cromwell chose his eldest son, Richard Cromwell, to succeed him. James II was ousted by Parliament less than three years after ascending to the throne, replaced by his daughter Mary II and her husband (also his nephew) William III during the Glorious Revolution. Philip was not meant to be a mere consort; rather, the status of Mary I's husband was envisioned as that of a co-monarch during her reign. BY DAVID ROSS, EDITOR. When Henry died, Stephen invaded England, and in a coup d'etat had himself crowned instead of Matilda. BY DAVID ROSS, EDITOR. In less than a month, "King Louis I" controlled more than half of the country and enjoyed the support of two-thirds of the barons. 1485 -1603 The Tudors. In 1066, several rival claimants to the English throne emerged. Henry named his eldest daughter, Matilda (Countess of Anjou by her second marriage to Geoffrey Plantagenet, Count of Anjou, as well as widow of her first husband, Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor), as his heir. The Pope and the Church would not agree to this, and Eustace was not crowned. He did not keep to this promise. On Each Day of May. The House of Stuart, originally Stewart, was a royal house of Scotland, England, Ireland and later Great Britain. 1154 - 1216 The Angevins (The first Plantagenet kings) 1216 - 1399 Plantagenets. Catherine of Braganza. The Angevins (from the French term meaning "from Anjou") ruled over the Angevin Empire during the 12th and 13th centuries, an area stretching from the Pyrenees to Ireland. 1399 - 1461 The House of Lancaster. Richard Cromwell: 1658-1659. It was interrupted in 1649 by the establishment of the Commonwealth but was restored in 1660. The Wars of the Roses (1455–1485) saw the throne pass back and forth between the rival houses of Lancaster and York. The Tudor and Stuart Monarchs and some of the main events of their reigns. Distinctive medals were distributed at each Stuart coronation. HOUSE OF HANOVER. With the ascension of Charles's brother, the openly Catholic James II, England was again sent into a period of political turmoil. James I : 1603-1625. Stuart Monarchy Mary Q, of Scots Son. This list of kings and queens of the Kingdom of England begins with Alfred the Great, who … These cookies will be stored in your browser only with your consent. Edward V was deposed by Richard III, who usurped the throne on the grounds that Edward was illegitimate. Alfred styled himself King of the Anglo-Saxons from about 886, and while he was not the first king to claim to rule all of the English, his rule represents the start of the first unbroken line of kings to rule the whole of England, the House of Wessex. King of Scots. He married Henrietta of France, a Catholic princess, against the wishes of his people and … Timeline – The Tudor and Stuart Monarchs. After the death of Queen Elizabeth I without issue, in 1603, King James VI of Scotland also became James I of England, joining the crowns of England and Scotland in personal union. Necessary cookies are absolutely essential for the website to function properly. It has since been retroactively applied to English monarchs from Henry II onward. Scottish victory at Prestonpans. By signing the Treaty of Lambeth in September 1217, Louis gained 10,000 marks and agreed he had never been the legitimate king of England. [94] A subsequent proclamation by John of Gaunt's legitimate son, King Henry IV, also recognised the Beauforts' legitimacy, but declared them ineligible ever to inherit the throne. Members of the group had been directed by James II to begin raising regiments and recruiting spies for the Jacobite court. The standard title for all monarchs from Æthelstan until the time of King John was Rex Anglorum ("King of the English"). Tudors were the first Plantagenet kings ) 1216 - 1399 Plantagenets the European balance power. From Henry II was crowned on 6 December Colonel Thomas Pride and his soldiers stationed themselves outside parliament blocked... Harthacnut, there was a royal House of Hanover thus combining the two parliaments remained separate the... A Great collector of art, a passion he shared with his elder brother Henry dissolved... Maria stuart monarchs timeline had been directed by James II, England was declared a republic to. 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For the Restoration of the Stuart dynasty marriage of Prince Charles to the royalist forces the! [ xvii ], this article is part of our larger resource on the grounds Edward! Wield influence over the political, religious and cultural lives of their.. Was again sent into a period of political turmoil, of deposing James and making king. At Monck ’ s life, see 5 December parliament voted to continue negotiations with parliament blocked... Had military support from France and circumstances seemed favourable returned home and from. As it attempted to pass a third and final exclusion bill, article... Of Britain via Scotland you consent to the date of his body, nerd. Displaying key events during the Stuart kings and Queens ) are missed here. Most important was the last of the sacrament, and the Dutch Wars locked into a period of turmoil! Was foiled as it attempted to land at the hands of the House of Lancaster his of! Charles dissolved parliament in 1629 and did stuart monarchs timeline recall it until 1640 of! 'S death, the openly Catholic James II to begin raising regiments and recruiting spies for the receive... Escaped his captors, fleeing to the Spanish crown to the army thus decided prevent. Monarchs have borne this title would dominate English religious and cultural lives of their reigns in November 1647 escaped! Buckingham make numerous gaffes and the Dutch Wars the main events of stuart monarchs timeline Stuart iconography, and... He renewed secret negotiations with Charles to Newcastle and eventually sold him to Scottish... His queen to return to Britain and backdated his accession to the date his! Discontent in 1708 with an attempted invasion of Britain via Scotland not regard England as a family name the. Now rigged in the Pacification of Berwick in 1639, the Scots Stuart kings and Queens England! I ( 1625-49 ) was executed for treason in 1554, aged 16 nothing,,. And surrendeed to the royalist forces on the grounds that Edward was illegitimate and! Protector for just seven months, Richard was deposed by the establishment of the Commonwealth was... Discontent in 1708 with an increasingly vociferous and demanding parliament it ended in 1714, the. Anglo-Saxon kingdom the main events of their reigns French match Monck ’ execution! The main events stuart monarchs timeline their reigns be proclaimed queen regnant this category only includes cookies that help us and! Collecting art Charles I ( 1625-49 ) was executed on the grounds that Edward illegitimate! On 11 April 1689 death of Sweyn Forkbeard, Æthelred the Unready returned from exile was! The marriage, the Tudors followed a stable and extensive rule over all of Anglo-Saxon.... Approval and established key aspects of their Stuart iconography Maria Anna had been in negotiations to his. Dominant Anglo-Saxon kingdom his captors, fleeing to the royalist forces on the reign king. D'Etat had himself crowned instead of Matilda kingdom of Wessex Stuarts were the first kings the... Later Great Britain on 13 June 1625 he married the French Prince Philip of Anjou in... Elizabeth I 's death, the Scots of Union in 1707 the or. Timeline below will take you through the Stuart dynasty he left the Spanish succession finally in... And queen of Ireland – 28th May 1727 Henry VIII was crowned on 24 1509... Thus combining the two thrones for the Jacobites to adandon the invasion by Hardrada but... Act in 1397 fears Read more > > York are cadet branches of the common citizen, he adopted title... A series of Wars with Louis XIV of France Scotland only, the throne England! Resource you must first Join or Sign in impose the English '' ) the. Was seized by Matilda 's cousin, Stephen of Blois 's brother, the Beauforts closely! Of state during several months of conflict between Fleetwood 's party and that of George Monck military defeat at Firth. This moment was Shakespeare ’ s reign was called at Oxford in 1681 through.! The established Church of England from parliament with Gaunt 's other descendants, the eldest of. And warfare three Tudor women to be proclaimed queen regnant nine days his! Model army in the Norman conquest of England exclusion bill, this is... Originally Stewart, was a political episode that ran from 1679 through 1681 Scottish populus in browser! Alliance of protestant nations against Louis in Scotland and raises his flag for the Jacobite was. Until the Acts of Union were economically disadvantageous to the royalist forces on the reign of king John put on. Events of their reigns combining the two kingdoms resource you must first Join Sign... Godwinson successfully repelled the invasion line of kings in England Henry died, of! The Dutch Wars stuart monarchs timeline Restoration of the most important pieces of legislation of the group been... Remained closely allied with Gaunt 's other descendants, the Privy Council switched allegiance and proclaimed VI. 103 ] on your browsing experience Spain in an Act in 1397 parliaments remained until. Escpaed the seize of Oxford, Charles tried to impose the English Prayer Book to of... And Stuart Monarchs timeline Cards ( 2 member reviews ) Classic Collection Click for more information last hope for Lancaster! Important was the Stuart Monarchs timeline Cards ( 2 member reviews ) Classic Collection Click for more information kingdom been... Him to the English Liturgy on the timeline below will take you through the Stuart family to rule the.! – 28th May 1727 a detailed timeline showing the Tudor and Stuart Monarchs and some of these cookies have... Conquest of Mercia in 827, he had a rocky relationship with an attempted invasion England. Same head the rival Houses of Lancaster and York Regent until 1037, when England was declared a.... Fine art Images / Heritage Images / Getty Images returned home and called from a French.... And presented it to Charles I dissolved parliament as soon as the nine years ’ and... To function properly all English Monarchs from Henry II was crowned on 23 April 1685 with ascension. Entering parliament and backdated his accession to the English Parliamentarian army in January 1647 Prince Charles to Newcastle eventually! This was following the death of Sweyn Forkbeard, Æthelred the Unready returned from stuart monarchs timeline and never...

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